Spanish Era or Era Cons

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Spanish Era or Era Cons

Aristeo Fernando
Dear Calendar People,
 
Sepp Rotwangl mentioned about the Spanish Era or Era Cons that flourished during the second century AD.  It placed the birth of Jesus in 39 BC, 38 years earlier than that calculated by Dionysius Exiguus in 500+ AD, if I remember correctly.
 
It is a study of Jose Vives of Barcelona and is in Spanish.  Is there an English translation of this study?  Maybe Victor who knows Spanish can tell us more about it.
 
I am interested in knowing how the era was dated, whether it was using a solar calendar, a lunisolar calendar, or a purely lunar calendar.
 
Thank you for your kind help.
 
Best regards,
Aristeo Canlas Fernando, Peace Crusader
Motto:  pro aris et focis
 


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Re: Spanish Era or Era Cons

Joe Kress
Aristeo:

The first year of the Spanish Era (also called the Era of the
Caesars) was 38 BC, which was not regarded as the birth of Jesus.
Although its origin is uncertain, it may originate with the Roman
conquest of the Iberian peninsula. It was used to number the
years of the Julian calendar, the solar calendar which was
dominant throughout the Roman Empire, whose years were identified
elsewhere by naming the consuls who held office that year, at
least until AD 541. The Spanish Era was used by Catalonia until
1180, by Aragon until 1349, by Valencia and Majorca until 1358,
by Castile until 1383, and by Portugal until 1422. In all cases,
these Iberian nations then decided to adopt the Christian Era
devised by Dionysius Exiguus, which had been used throughout the
rest of Western Europe since at least the tenth century (and in
Britain since the seventh century).

Joe Kress
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Re: Spanish Era or Era Cons

Aristeo Fernando
Dear Joe and Calendar People,
 
Thank you, Joe, for the information.
 
Why was 38 BC chosen as the first year of the Spanish Era?  I thought Julius Caesar promulgated the Julian calendar in 46 BC.  So there must be an event in 38 BC that the Spaniards noted so as to place it as the reference point, the origin, of their eras.  According to Sepp, it was the birth of Jesus Christ, as studied carefully by Jose Vives of Barcelona.
 
I assume that when the Spanish Era was in use, it went hand in hand with the Julian calendar in use in the Roman Empire, and therefore, the Julian dates were used to date the eras.  Is my assumption correct?
 
Best regards,
Aristeo Canlas Fernando, Peace Crusader
Motto:  pro aris et focis
 
 
  

Joe Kress <[hidden email]> wrote:
Aristeo:

The first year of the Spanish Era (also called the Era of the
Caesars) was 38 BC, which was not regarded as the birth of Jesus.
Although its origin is uncertain, it may originate with the Roman
conquest of the Iberian peninsula. It was used to number the
years of the Julian calendar, the solar calendar which was
dominant throughout the Roman Empire, whose years were identified
elsewhere by naming the consuls who held office that year, at
least until AD 541. The Spanish Era was used by Catalonia until
1180, by Aragon until 1349, by Valencia and Majorca until 1358,
by Castile until 1383, and by Portugal until 1422. In all cases,
these Iberian nations then decided to adopt the Christian Era
devised by Dionysius Exiguus, which had been used throughout the
rest of Western Europe since at least the tenth century (and in
Britain since the seventh century).

Joe Kress



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Re: Spanish Era or Era Cons

Lance Latham
RE:

>   I assume that when the Spanish Era was in use, it
> went hand in hand with the Julian calendar in use in
> the Roman Empire, and therefore, the Julian dates
> were used to date the eras.  Is my assumption
> correct?

Lance replies:
The one reference that I located on the Web indicated
that the Spanish Era was used in Spain, Portugal and
southwestern France. It was in use in some areas until
the 15th century. I see that Joe has supplied more
detailed information, presumably from another source.

The reasoning behind the choice of era year was not
stated.

-Lance


Lance Latham
[hidden email]
Phone:    (518) 274-0570
Address: 78 Hudson Avenue/1st Floor, Green Island, NY 12183
 




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Re: Spanish Era or Era Cons

Aristeo Fernando
Dear Lance, Joe and Calendar People,
 
Thanks, Lance, for the info.
 
I am quoting hereunder what is in Sepp Rotwangl's website at http://www.calendarsign.com/en/to_turn_of_era2.php :
 
Dionysius Exiguus was not the first inventor of a yearly counting starting from Christ's birth, as many mistakenly believe.  Jose Vives of Barcelona, in his careful study, "Inscripciones cristianas de la Espana Roman y Visigoda," discusses the era Cons, or Spanish era, which existed since the second half of the third century, originating on the Asturian-Astabrian border area of the Iberian peninsula.  The Spanish era or era Cos (era Cons), counts 38 years more than the calendar of Dionysius.  This yearly counting emerges toward the end of the first millennium in a Spanish-Islamic manuscript, called "anwa'-book."  The manuscript noted the exact daily rising and setting of all starts of this time with usual calendar dates.  Even Dionysius Exiguus was well-informed about this yearly counting, because it was mentioned in his "Hispania", a canon collection of the synod of Tarragona, 516, including numerous papal writings.  So Dionysius Exiguus had a model for a yearly counting starting from Christ's birth.  Why didn't he take over this original, instead of choosing another year as a starting point?  It is a mystery, the solution of which, 1500 years later, reveals clearly the original, secret reasons and associated later crimes of the Catholic church."
 
I only know a little of Spanish so I will not able to understand the work of Jose Vives of Barcelona if ever I get hold of it.  I am looking for its translation to English, if available.  Now, I am just relying on summaries, such as above, and pieces of information supplied by the likes of Joe Kress and Lance Latham.
 
The Holy Spirit told us that Jesus Christ was born on May 23 (He did not state the year) and I was able to prove that the date May 23, 33 BC is correct.  This study is found in http://www.geocities.com/peacecrusader888/birthmay23.htm.  The year 33 BC is not far off from year 38 BC, the start of the Spanish era or era Cons.  That is why I am asking for the basis of the year 38 BC of the Spanish era.  I assume that it was the birth of Jesus as Sepp stated in his website. 
 
Best regards,
Aristeo Canlas Fernando, Peace Crusader
Motto:  pro aris et focis


Lance Latham <[hidden email]> wrote:
RE:

> I assume that when the Spanish Era was in use, it
> went hand in hand with the Julian calendar in use in
> the Roman Empire, and therefore, the Julian dates
> were used to date the eras. Is my assumption
> correct?

Lance replies:
The one reference that I located on the Web indicated
that the Spanish Era was used in Spain, Portugal and
southwestern France. It was in use in some areas until
the 15th century. I see that Joe has supplied more
detailed information, presumably from another source.

The reasoning behind the choice of era year was not
stated.

-Lance


Lance Latham
[hidden email]
Phone: (518) 274-0570
Address: 78 Hudson Avenue/1st Floor, Green Island, NY 12183





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Re: Spanish Era or Era Cons

Deckers, Michael
In reply to this post by Lance Latham
   On 2006-06-07, Lance Latham wrote:

>  The one reference that I located on the Web indicated
>  that the Spanish Era was used in Spain, Portugal and
>  southwestern France. It was in use in some areas until
>  the 15th century. I see that Joe has supplied more
>  detailed information, presumably from another source.

   Some early uses are described in

   [Palazón 2006] Juan Manuel Abascal Palazón: "La era
      consular hispana y el final de la práctica epigráfica
      pagana".
      Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. 2006 Alicante.
      [http://cervantesvirtual.com/FichaObra.html?Ref=19735]

   which is online (in Spanish). The paper also has a
   bibliography on the topic.

   Michael Deckers